Let us now return to earth to discover some of the many amazing statements
contained in Qur'anic reflections about our own planet. They deal, not only with
the physical phenomena observed here on earth, but also with details concerning
the living organisms that inhabit it.
As in the case of everything we have discussed so far, we shall see that the
Qur'an also expresses concepts in the field of geology that were way ahead of
those current at the time of its revelation.
At this point, we must ask ourselves the following question: How could an
uneducated man in the middle of the desert accurately tackle so many and such
varied subjects at a time when mythology and superstition reigned supreme? How
could he so skillfully avoid every belief that was proven to be totally
inaccurate many centuries later?
The verses dealing with the earthly systems are a case in point. I have quoted a
large number of them in my book, The Bible, The Qur'an and Science, and have
paid special attention to those that deal with the water cycle in nature. This
is a topic which is well known today. Consequently, the verses in the Qur'an
that refer to the water cycle seem to express ideas that are now totally
self-evident. But if we consider the ideas prevalent at that time, they appear
to be based more on myth and philosophical speculation than on observed fact,
even though useful practical knowledge on soil irrigation was current at that
Let us examine, for example, the following verse in chapter az-Zumar:
"Have you not seen that Allah sent rain down from the sky and caused it to
penetrate the ground and come forth as springs, then He caused crops of
different colors to grow..." Qur'an,39:21
Such notions seem quite natural to us today, but we should not forget that, not
so long ago, they were not prevalent. It was not until the sixteenth century,
with Bernard Palissy, that we gained the first coherent description of the water
cycle. Prior to this, people believed that the waters of the oceans, under the
effect of winds, were thrust towards the interior of the continents. They then
returned to the oceans via the great abyss, which, since Plato's time was called
the Tartarus .In the seventeenth century, great thinkers such as Descartes still
believed in this myth. Even in the nineteenth century there were still those who
believed in Aristotle's theory that water was condensed in cool mountain caverns
and formed underground lakes that fed springs. Today, we know that it is the
infiltration of rain water into the ground that is responsible for this. If one
compares the facts of modern hydrology with the data found in numerous verses of
the Qur'an on this subject, one cannot fail to notice the remarkable degree of
agreement between the two.
In geology, modern science has recently discovered the phenomenon of folding
which formed the mountain ranges. The earth's crust is like a solid shell, while
the deeper layers are hot and fluid, and thus inhospitable to any form of life.
It has also been discovered that the stability of mountains is linked to the
phenomenon of folding. The process of mountain formation by folding drove the
earth's crust down into the lower layers and provided foundations for the
Let us now compare modern ideas with one verse among many in the Qur'an that
deals with this subject. It is taken from chapter an-Naba':
"Have We not made the earth an expanse and the mountains stakes?"
Stakes ( awtaad ), which are driven into the ground like those used to anchor a
tent, are the deep foundations of geological folds.
Here, as in the case of all the other topics presented, the objective observer
cannot fail to notice the absence of any contradiction to modern knowledge.