There are a multitude of statements in the
(Koran) on the subject of human
reproduction which constitute a challenge to the embryologist seeking a human
explanation for them. It was only after the birth of the basic sciences which
contributed to our knowledge of biology and the invention of the microscope,
that humans were able to understand the depth of those Qur'anic statements. It
was impossible for a human being living in the early seventh century to have
accurately expressed such ideas. There is nothing to indicate that people in the
Middle-East and Arabia knew anything more about this subject than people living
in Europe or anywhere else. Today, there are many Muslims, possessing a thorough
knowledge of the Qur'an and natural sciences, who have recognized the amazing
similarity between the verses of the Qur'an dealing with reproduction and modern
I shall always remember the comment of an eighteen-year-old Muslim, brought up
in Saudi Arabia, commenting on a reference to human reproduction as described in
the Qur'an. He pointed to the Qur'an and said, "This book provides us with all
the essential information on the subject. When I was at school, my teachers used
the Qur'an to explain how children were born. Your books on sex-education are a
bit late on the scene!"
If I were to spend as long on all the details of reproduction contained in the
Qur'an, as the subject merits, this pamphlet would become a book. The detailed
linguistic and scientific explanations I have given in The Bible, The Qur'an and
Science are sufficient for the person who does not speak Arabic nor know much
about embryology to be able to understand the meaning of such verses in the
light of modern science in more depth.
It is especially in the field of embryology that a comparison between the
beliefs present at the time of the Qur'an's revelation and modern scientific
data, leaves us amazed at the degree of agreement between the Qur'an's
statements and modern scientific knowledge. Not to mention the total absence of
any reference in the Qur'an to the mistaken ideas that were prevalent around the
world at the time.
Let us now isolate, from all these verses, precise ideas concerning the
complexity of the semen and the fact that an infinitely small quantity is
required to ensure fertilization. In chapter al-Insaan the Qur'an states:
"Verily, I created humankind from a small quantity of mingled fluids." Qur'an,
The Arabic word nutfah has been translated as "small quantity". It comes from
the verb meaning ‘to dribble, to trickle' and is used to describe what remains
in the bottom of a bucket which has been emptied. The verse correctly implies
that fertilization is performed by only a very small volume of liquid.
On the other hand, mingled fluids ( amshaaj ) has been understood by early
commentators to refer to the mixture of male and female discharges. Modern
authors have corrected this view and note that the sperm is made up of various
When the Qur'an talks of a fertilizing fluid composed of different components,
it also informs us that human progeny will be formed from something extracted
from this liquid. This is the meaning of the following verse in chapter as-Sajdah:
"Then He made [ man's ] offspring from the essence of a despised fluid."
The Arabic word translated by the term ‘essence' is sulaalah which means
‘something extracted, the best part of a thing'. In whatever way it is
translated, it refers to part of a whole. Under normal conditions, only one
single cell, spermatozoon, out of over 50 million ejaculated by a man during
sexual intercourse will actually penetrate the ovule.
Once the egg has been fertilized in the fallopian tube, it descends to lodge
itself inside the uterus. This process is called the ‘implantation of the egg'.
Implantation is a result of the development of villosities, which, like roots in
the soil, draw nourishment from the wall of the uterus and make the egg
literally cling to the womb. The process of implantation is appropriately
described in several verses by the word ‘alaq, which is also the title of the
chapter in which one of the verses appears:
"God fashioned humans from a clinging entity." Qur'an, 96:2
I do not think there is any reasonable translation of the word ‘alaq other than
to use it in its original sense. It is a mistake to speak of a ‘blood clot'
here, which is the term Professor Hamidullah uses in his translation. It is a
derivative meaning which is not as appropriate in this context.
The evolution of the embryo inside the maternal uterus is only briefly
described, but the description is accurate, because the simple words referring
to it correspond exactly to fundamental stages in its growth. This is what we
read in a verse from the chapter al-Mu'minoon:
"I fashioned the clinging entity into a chewed lump of flesh and I fashioned the
chewed flesh into bones and I clothed the bones with intact flesh." Qur'an,
The term ‘chewed flesh' (mudghah) corresponds exactly to the appearance of the
embryo at a certain stage in its development.
It is known that the bones develop inside this mass and that they are then
covered with muscle. This is the meaning of the term ‘intact flesh' (lahm).
The embryo passes through a stage where some parts are in proportion and others
out of proportion with what is later to become the individual. This is the
obvious meaning of a verse in the chapter al-Hajj, which reads as follows:
"I fashioned (humans) a clinging entity, then into a lump of flesh in proportion
and out of proportion." Qur'an, 22:5.
Next, we have a reference to the appearance of the senses and internal organs in
the chapter as-Sajdah:
"... and (God) gave you ears, eyes and hearts." Qur'an, 32:9
Nothing here contradicts today's data and, furthermore, none of the mistaken
ideas of the time have crept into the Qur'an. Throughout the Middle Ages there
were a variety of beliefs about human development based on myths and
speculations which continued for several centuries after the period. The most
fundamental stage in the history of embryology came in 1651 with Harvey's
statement that "all life initially comes from an egg". At that time, when
science had benefited greatly from the invention of the microscope, people were
still arguing about the respective roles of the egg and spermatozoon. Buffon,
the great naturalist, was one of those in favor of the egg theory.Bonnet, on the
other hand, supported the theory of ‘the ovaries of Eve', which stated that Eve,
the mother of the human race, was-supposed to have had inside her the seeds of
all human beings packed together one inside the other.